Am J Reprod lmmunol. 2016 Feb;75(2):126-33. doi: 10.1111/aj1.12475

Beghini J1, Giraldo PC’, Eleuterio J Jr2, Amaral RL1, Polpeta NC’, Gongalves AK3



A wide variety of mediators are involved in inflammatory processes. However, the identity of those participating in vaginal immune responses has not been established. We correlated extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MVP-8), hyaluronan (HA), hyaluronidase-1 (Hyal-1), human 3-defensin-2 (hBD2), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations with the extent of leukocyte infiltration into the vagina and suggest their participation in vaginal inflammation.


Vaginal fluid was obtained from 233 women seen at the outpatient clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Campinas University, Brazil. The magnitude of vaginal inflammation was determined by the leukocyte count on vaginal smears and categorized as no inflammation (0 leukocytes/field), moderate inflammation (1-4 leukocytes/field), and intense inflammation (>4 leukocytes/field). Concentrations of EMMPRIN, MMP-8, HA, Hyal-1, hBD2, and NGAL were determined in vaginal fluid by ELSA.


EMMPRIN, MMP-8, HA, hBD2, and NGAL concentration increased with elevated leukocyte numbers (P < 0.05), while Hyal-1 did not. EMMPRIN concentrations were correlated with HA and MMP-8 levels.